Łańcuch DNA – Drabiny z milionami szczebli
Łańcuch DNA – DNA strands looks like spiral ladders with the millions rungs, each of which carries the instructions written by chemical code. If we could unravel and stretch the DNA of a single human cell, measure the approx. 2 meters, its thickness, however, would amount to approx. 0.000002 mm. Chain DNA from the body of one man is 16 times longer than the path from Earth to the Moon.
Rodzaje DNA – Distinction is made between two types of DNA:
- Nuclear DNA, in the nucleus of each cell of the human body consists of 20-25 thousand. genes. After the death of its host quickly degrades.
- Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), contains only 37 genes. During the study, scientists use mtDNA, which is inherited only from the mother, it retains a relatively high resistance to the influence of sexual selection, however, it is a frequent mutations.
Bakterie ludzkiego organizmu – Mikroorganizmy układu trawiennego
Bakterie ludzkiego organizmu – The total weight of bacteria living in the human digestive system is approx. 1.5 kg. In the large intestine, we have 100 trillion microorganisms – 10 times more than the number of all cells in the body. They are divided into roughly 400 species.
Studies have shown that it is the changes in the number and species of bacteria in the gut have a negative impact on the psyche of the patients. According to specialists bacterial flora may be responsible not only prone to depression, but depression symptoms in themselves.
At one cm square elbow stays on average 10 thousand. bacteria – 113 different species, but more than 90% are 10 of them. The least bacteria on human skin found between the toes, the largest habitat of the navel.
Aktywność umysłowa starszego wieku – Liczba neuronów
Aktywność umysłowa starszego wieku – Liczba neuronów – The decrease in mental activity in old age was attributed to the decreasing with age, the number of brain cells. Neurologists from universities in Boston and Washington, however, proved. That almost all of the 10 billion cells used while thinking, they are active even in 80-year-olds.
Efekty alkoholizmu – Naprawa uszkodzonych neuronów
Efekty alkoholizmu – Naprawa uszkodzonych neuronów – Scientists from Wurzburg in Germany found that damage to brain cells caused by excessive alcohol consumption can be repaired only partially. They note that in the interest of alcoholics is the fastest return to sobriety. Longer heavy drinking causes brain regeneration proceeds with great difficulty.
Proteomika – The science of proteins – about how they arise, how they change and how they affect various processes in the cell.
Bakterie ludzkiego organizmu
Bakterie ludzkiego organizmu – In the body of an adult human lives approx. 500 trillion of different bacteria, which is a lot more than your own body cells. Fortunately, most of these microorganisms are harmless.
Interferon – It is a compound protecting against viruses. A protein produced and released by the cells of the body, provides communication between them by activating the immune system.
Milk from yeasts
Milk from yeasts – Longing for the taste of cow’s milk, but professing an orthodox vegan scientists from the US, solved their problem by introducing into yeast cells cow genes for the synthesis of milk components. In a similar way is prepared for quite a time certain medications. The milk milked from yeast has a chance to appear in stores in two years.
Human genetic material
Human genetic material – The entire human genetic material stored in trillions of cells in the body in the form of DNA, suddenly weighed about 65 grams.