Łańcuch DNA – Drabiny z milionami szczebli
Łańcuch DNA – DNA strands looks like spiral ladders with the millions rungs, each of which carries the instructions written by chemical code. If we could unravel and stretch the DNA of a single human cell, measure the approx. 2 meters, its thickness, however, would amount to approx. 0.000002 mm. Chain DNA from the body of one man is 16 times longer than the path from Earth to the Moon.
Rodzaje DNA – Distinction is made between two types of DNA:
- Nuclear DNA, in the nucleus of each cell of the human body consists of 20-25 thousand. genes. After the death of its host quickly degrades.
- Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), contains only 37 genes. During the study, scientists use mtDNA, which is inherited only from the mother, it retains a relatively high resistance to the influence of sexual selection, however, it is a frequent mutations.
Migration map – By comparing DNA oldest ancestors of modern man with newer archaeological samples produced outline map migration. It shows that the man began to „move” from Africa to Europe after the climax of the last ice age (28 thousands years ago), but before the younger Stone Age (10 thousands years ago).
Recording information in DNA
Recording information in DNA – The most fascinating carrier of information is constantly DNA. In this molecule may be stored data in large quantities and with excellent accuracy. One cubic millimeter can save up to 5.5 petabits information.
Completely read Neanderthal
Completely read Neanderthal – Reconstruction and read the complete Neanderthal genome was 19 March 2013. A full reading of the DNA of Homo neanderthalensis lasted from 2010 to 2013.
DNA discoverer – DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, was discovered in 1869. Thanks to a Swiss doctor Johann Friedrich Miescher (1844-1895), who managed to isolate it from human white blood cells.
Junk DNA – As many as 97% of the human DNA is composed of non-coding DNA (junk DNA). Its significance, if any, is so far unknown.
DNA helix discoverers
DNA helix discoverers – It was only in 1953. Two young scientists from Cambridge, the American James Watson (born 1923) and Briton Francis Crick (1916-2004) on the basis of data obtained by Rosalind Franklin (1920-1958) and Maurice Wilkins (1916-2004) We managed to discover the characteristic double helix of DNA.
Extremely small genome
Extremely small genome – The genome of Haemophilus influenzae was the first in the history of the genome was read. This took place in 1995. This bacterium was chosen due to its extremely small genome, which contains only 1 830 140 base pairs of DNA and genes 1740.